International Journal of Chemical and Environmental Sciences (IJCAES)
(ISSN Number (Online) - 2687-7937)
(ISSN Number (Print) - 2689-6389)

Current Issues:

Study of Acetolactate Synthase and its Mechanism of Inhibition by Sulfonylurea Active Ingredients: Amidosulfuron, Nicosulfuron, Cyclosulfuron – In-silico Approach

Mantu Chakraborty1 , Renuka Das2 , and Sunil Kanti Mondal2*

1Department of Microbiology, Vidyasagar University, Rangamati, Midnapore, West Bengal 721102.,
2Department of Biotechnology, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan – 713104.

Acetolactate synthase (ALS) or Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) catalyzes the first step in the synthesis of the branched-chain amino acids i.e., valine (2-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid), leucine (2-amino-4- methylpentanoic acid), and isoleucine (2-amino-3-methylpentanoic acid), in plants, bacteria, algae and fungi but not in humans. AHAS is the main target enzyme for sulfonylurea active ingredients; Amidosulfuron, Nicosulfuron and Cyclosulfuron those assist in lowering branched-chain amino acid synthesis through inhibition to form the complex of Lactyl-ThDP(TDL) to ALS with great practical importance. Amino acid composition, evolutionary and sequence analysis of the ALS protein from Arabidopsis thaliana and its homologous were systematically studied. Composition analysis reveals that ALS is a soluble protein. Moreover, the phylogenetic tree showed different clusters based on the source organism and multiple sequence alignment depicts conservative nature in amino acid residues. Furthermore, molecular docking has been conducted to study the interactions between ALS of Arabidopsis thaliana and TDL in presence/absence of the active ingredients of sulfonylurea herbicide groups. Molecular docking studies confirm active ingredients are effective to inhibit the binding of TDL to ALS. Our obtained results can be very useful to study specific protein interactions along with developing new herbicides using computational methods.
Keywords:Acetolactate synthase (ALS), Branched-chain amino acid synthesis (BCAA), Lactyl-ThDP (TDL), Herbicide, Molecular docking.


Study of Air pollution in Kolkata with the respect to the monthly spike in the concentration of pollutants for the year 2015

Anish Ganguly

Department of Environmental Science, University of Calcutta

Air pollution in Kolkata is not a result of only the human error and negligence but it is alsoaffected by the meteorological factors like wind . In this rostrum we have simply discussed about the spike in the pollutant level in certain days of the year and have tried to explain the reason with the utilization of Hysplit Backtrajectory and Dispersion model.
Keywords: Pollution, Particulate matter, Dispersion Model.


1918 Spanish Flu:A data driven study

Prateek Majumder1*, Sayanti Dutta2, Pritabrata Mallik 3 , and Sourin Roy4

1Department of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Engineering & Management, Kolkata-700 091
2Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, Institute of Engineering & Management,Kolkata-700 091
3Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Godavari Institute of Engineering & Technology,Rajahmundry – 533296, Andhra Pradesh
4Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Shri G.S. Institute of Technology and Science, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452003

In 1918, a new influenza virus emerged. During this same time period World War I was taking place. The conditions of World War I (overcrowding and global troop movement) helped the 1918 flu spread [1]. The vulnerability of healthy young adults and the lack of vaccines and treatments created a major public health crisis, causing at least 50 million deaths worldwide. This is a data-oriented project to try to understand the Spanish Flu outbreak of 1918 and how it can teach us valuable lessons. We studied the death and mortality related aspects, economic impacts and how social distancing helped mitigate the spread.
Keywords: Spanish Flu, Pandemic, Pathogen, Social Distancing, Disease.


An Eco Friendly Substitute of Asphalt Binder – Review

Brajit Paul, Dibakar Roy Choudhury , Rajdeep Ray, Abhisek Roy and Sayak Banerjee

Department of Basic Science And Humanities, Institute of Engineering and Management,Sector V, Salt Lake City, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata, West Bengal 700091.

The review focuses on the potential use of wood lignin as a partial substitute and performance enhancer in asphalt binders. The aim behind this reviews to fight issues like durability, strength and the reduction in aquifer recharging. Lignin is a dead natural polymer occurring in the secondary cell wall of plant cells. During polymerisation, monlignols accumulate in a non uniform manner, thus leaving behind pores in the structure. Using this property in our asphalt binders would render roads as permeable to water. But lignin being hydrophobic in nature, the material would not corrode due to water actions, unlike commonly used bitumen. Various tests have been conducted to generate aging conditions on test using lignin as asphalt binder. All of them show that lignin addition to binder brings stiffness. Lignin also positively effects high temperature rutting performance, without adversely affecting low temperature. Lignin additionally also shows better recovery than bitumen as binder. The fatigue resistance of surface is negatively affected by lignin. Basically the result of various studies suggests that wood lignin is a promising substitution of bitumen as binder, coming with economic savings and environmental benefits.
Keywords: Asphalt, Lignin, Bitumen


Heavy Metal Contamination in Biotic Component: A gradual case study in West Bengal

Soma Samaddar1* , Satyaki Choudhury 2 , Sanchaita Das3 , Mousumi Mondal4 , Rajasree Naskar5

1*Department of Chemistry, Lady Brabourne College, Kolkata 700017
2 La Martiniere For Boys, Kolkata 700017.
3 4 5Department of Chemistry, Lady Brabourne College, Kolkata 700017.

Fish is a popular human food. Over two-and-a-half billion people globally obtain their daily nutrient intake from fish. In India, it is a major dietary component for over 50 percent, and is a particularly important nutrition source for the poor. Mercury is a deadly environmental pollutant, both in its elemental form and in combination with other chemicals. When released into the environment mercury is transformed into methylmercury through microbial action. Methylmercury is the most pernicious form of mercury. It bioaccumulates in fish and enters human body with the consumption of contaminated fish. Fish in polluted water bodies accumulate methylmercury – a toxic pollutant of high potency that crosses the blood brain barrier and placental barrier, making it an intergenerational toxin. It enters the food chain both from point and non-point sources. Effluent pipes from industrial processes often contain mercury or mercury compounds. Emissions and ash from coal-fired power plants also contain mercury. It is well known that mercury circulates globally and deposits in water, bioaccumulating in the food chain through algae and fish. The higher the pecking order of a fish in the food chain, greater is the amount of mercury it is likely to contain. Advisories on fish consumption are quite common in developed countries, especially for pregnant women. Human exposure to such toxins therefore assumes significance. Contamination of this vital food is a key issue.In developing countries, issues like food contamination rarely draw attention. Mere availability of food is argued to be of foremost concern. In this scenario of poverty and hunger, system of industrial production has largely remained unaccountable to society and the environmental pollution it causes.
Keywords: Contamination, Methyl mercury, bioaccumulation, human exposure.


Extraction of Antioxidants from spices

Kakoli Dutta,1, Sangita Karar2* , Ankita Rath 2

1 Department of Basic Science And Humanities, Institute of Engineering and Management,Sector V, Salt Lake City, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata, West Bengal 700091.
1 University of Engineering & Management, Kolkata (Affiliated by UGC, AIU, AICTE, BCI)University Area, Plot, Street Number 03, Action Area III, B/5, Newtown, Kolkata, West Bengal 700160.

Spices are an important part of our diet mainly because of their taste. They add a great taste to the prepared food. Since the ancient days spices and herbs are also known for their medicinal properties because they are used for treating various kind of illness like cough and cold, diabetes, common cold, gastric ulcer, different types of skin diseases and so on. In the present days, spices are available in different forms and different kinds of non permitted dyes are added to it mainly to protect its texture. These non permitted dyes are harmful and can cause serious illness if consumed regularly.The aim of this project is to estimate, extract and characterize the antioxidants and bioactive molecules from spices. Not only this, the presence of artificial colours are also tested in the spices. Six different spices were taken that we use in our daily life and they are also available easily in the market. They are taken as three different forms (the organic form, the whole spice and the powdered form available in the market) for the experiment.All the spices were treated with aqueous ethanol and polyphenols were estimated with the help of Folin Ciocalteau reagent. The absorbance are recorded using spectrophotometer. The presence of dye like sudan and rhodamine are tested with the help of ethyl acetate and methanol respectively. The functional group are also identified with the IR spectroscopy.
Keywords:Spices, Medicinal propertires, Folin CIocalteau reagent, Artificial colours.